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Business and the Holocaust - Books
Business and the Holocaust
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Media Reports
Sorted alphabetically by company names by order of most recent date.
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Amazon.com, Inc.
AJC Ad Calls On Booksellers to Stop Marketing Notorious Anti-Semitic Forgery
April 18, 2000
The American Jewish Committee
- NEW YORK -- The American Jewish Committee, in a New York Times ad today, criticizes major booksellers for selling the notorious anti-Semitic forgery, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and urges them to not market hate material.

"By peddling the Protocols, Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble are saying, in effect, that this is just another book – another valid competitor in the marketplace of ideas. That's what hate groups want you to believe. But ethically and factually - even in their distortion of constitutional principles, they're wrong," says the American Jewish Committee in the ad that appears on the op-ed page of the Times.

JC points out in the ad that the Protocols is "the most bloodstained volume in modern history," having inspired the destruction of European Jewry and become a staple of hate groups around the world.

The main U.S. publishers of the Protocols editions offered by these booksellers are Noontide Press - once linked to the racist and anti-Semitic Liberty Lobby and now the printing arm of the so-called Institute for Historical Review, the main organ of Holocaust denial worldwide - and Book Tree Press, supplier of an array of extremist materials.

"Reputable booksellers exercise discretion in what to place on their shelves, real or virtual," says AJC. "By abandoning that discretion, Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, and other book marketers, such as Borders and Alibris.com, reward hate publishers and validate their contemptible product."

"Every volume sold, on-line and in the book superstores, helps these publishers propagate hate," states the AJC ad. "Hate doesn't need the help, and major corporations shouldn't provide it."

AJC also points out that adding "warning labels" on the booksellers' web site pages featuring the Protocols "does not free them from responsibility for marketing hate."

Today's ad comes four weeks after AJC President Bruce M. Ramer and Executive Director David A. Harris wrote letters to the CEOs of Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, and Borders, urging them to stop offering the Protocols for sale.

Company names appearing in this article are:
  • Alibris.com (USA)
  • Amazon.com, Inc. (USA)
  • Barnes & Noble, Inc. (USA)
  • Borders Group, Inc. (USA)
American Express Company
French implicate U.S. banks
February 12, 1999
by LEE YANOWITCH - Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Jewish News of Greater Phoenix
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • American Express (USA)
  • Bank of the City of New York (Bank of New York) (USA)
  • Chase Manhattan (J.P. Morgan Chase & Company) (USA)
  • Guaranty Trust Co. of New York (acquired by J.P. Morgan & Co.) (J.P. Morgan Chase & Company) (USA)
  • J.P. Morgan (J.P. Morgan Chase & Company) (USA)
BBC News | Europe | US banks gave Jewish money to Nazis
A French government commission, investigating the seizure of Jewish bank accounts during the Second World War, says five American banks, Chase Manhattan, J.P. Morgan, Guaranty Trust Co. of New York, Bank of the City of New York and American Express, took part.
A commission member Claire Andrieu said that at the time, the United States was not at war with Germany, and the American banks could have behaved differently.
Wednesday, 3 February, 1999
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • American Express Company (USA)
  • Bank of New York Company, Inc. (USA)
  • Chase Manhattan (now J.P. Morgan Chase & Company) (USA)
  • Guaranty Trust Co. of New York (acquired by J.P. Morgan & Co.) (J.P. Morgan Chase & Company) (USA)
  • J.P. Morgan (J.P. Morgan Chase & Company) (USA)
American International Group, Inc.
[PDF] Under Cover
The traditional image of the insurance agent made perfect cover. Who would ever suspect that boring drone of a bureaucrat was a spy?
by Mark Fritz
American Academy of Actuaries: Contingencies Magazine
May/June 2001
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • American International Group (USA)
  • Munich Re Group (Germany)
  • Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands)
  • Swiss Reinsurance (Switzerland)
*Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view PDF files. A free download may be found at http://get.adobe.com/reader/
The Secret (Insurance) Agent Men
by Mark Fritz
Los Angeles Times
September 22, 2000
American insurance companies had been competing furiously for overseas business even after the United States entered the war, and the OSS files suggest that details about U.S. factories and cities were falling into enemy hands because of the interlocking international relationships among insurance companies.
The documents also said that two New York insurance executives, Cecil Stewart and Stewart Hopps, also came under scrutiny for selling war insurance to strategic U.S. industries and reselling some of the risk to Latin American affiliates linked to Nazi insurers. The men also ran a steamship company that chartered tankers for Royal Dutch Shell, a Nazi collaborator that used [Adolf Hitler]'s slave laborers.
When the tide of the war began to turn and German insurers began losing money, the U.S. insurance agents learned that Nazi insurers were pleading for peace. A source in Stockholm revealed in late 1943 that insurers advised Hitler's people that "ruin threatens all life and fire insurance companies in Germany." WWII unit gathered underwriters’ data, such as bomb plant blueprints, from warring nations, declassified U.S. files show.

Company names appearing in this article are:
  • American International Group (USA)
  • Munich Re Group (Germany)
  • Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands)
  • Swiss Reinsurance (Switzerland)
Assicurazioni Generali
Country: Italy
Exchange: Milan
The Secret History of World War II
PART VII: CLOAKED BUSINESS
by Mark Fritz / Globe Staff / November 19, 2001
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • Allianz AG (Germany)
  • Assicurazioni Generali (Italy)
  • Daimler AG (Germany)
  • Deutsche Bank AG (Germany)
  • Ford Motor Company (USA)
  • IBM (International Business Machines) (USA)
  • Munich Re Group (Germany)
  • Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands)
  • Siemens AG (Germany)
  • Swiss Reinsurance (Switzerland)
NARA - Holocaust-Era Assets - Turning History into Justice: Holocaust-Era Assets Records, Research, and Restitution
U.S. National Archives & Records Administration
War and Civilization Lecture University of North Carolina-Wilmington, North Carolina
April 19, 2001
Greg Bradsher
From the end of World War II until five years ago the Holocaust was primarily viewed as the greatest murder in history. And indeed it was. But since the spring of 1996 it has become ever more apparent that the Holocaust was also the greatest robbery in history. The Nazi-era witnessed the direct and indirect theft of well over $150 billion of tangible assets of victims of Nazi persecution.
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • Assicurazioni Generali (Italy)
  • Allianz AG (Germany)
  • Ford Motor Company (USA)
  • Nestlé S.A. (Nestle) (Switzerland)
NARA - Holocaust-Era Assets - Marta's List: The Pursuit of Holocaust Survivors' Lost Insurance Claims
U.S. National Archives & Records Administration
By Steven Sullivan
This Article appears in the July/August 1998 issue of Contingencies: American Academy of Actuaries
The Nazi solution was simple: Don't pay.
Letters on insurance company letterhead to the Third Reich that point to enthusiastic complicity in the denial of insurance proceeds to Jews.
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • Adriatica (now a subsidiary of Allianz AG) (Germany)
  • Basler Leben
  • Assicurazioni Generali (Italy)
  • Reunione Adriatica di Sicurth (now owned by Allianz AG) (Germany)
  • Winterthur (now owned by AXA) (Switzerland)
  • AXA (Switzerland)
SUMMARY REPORT to the NAIC Holocaust Insurance Issues Working Group
National Association of Insurance Commissioners
Insurance Commissioner, Washington State
Chair, NAIC Working Group on Holocaust & Insurance Issues
June 18, 1998
Company names appearing in this article are:
  • Allianz AG (Germany)
    Headquarters: Munich, Germany
    U.S. Subsidiaries: Allianz Life Insurance Co. of North America, American Automobile Insurance Co., American Insurance Company, Associated Indemnity Corp., Chicago Insurance Company, Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, Fireman's Fund Insurance Co. of Nebraska, Fireman's Fund Insurance Co. of Wisconsin, Interstate Indemnity Co., Jefferson Insurance Co. of New York, National Surety Corp., San Francisco Reinsurance Co., Warner Insurance Co., Allianz Insurance Company.
    Dr. Kurt Schmitt, head of Allianz, served as a Minister of Economics under Hitler in the 1930's. American archival documents show that Dr. Schmitt and Allianz (along with other German carriers) successfully pressed the Nazis to relieve them of payment of Jewish claims arising from Kristallnacht.
    Other archival documents suggest that Allianz and other German carriers independently expanded the scope of Nazi "racial laws" by systematically denying claims by Jews, canceling coverage for Jewish policyholders, and other business practices.

  • Assicurazioni Generali (Italy)
    Headquarters: Rome, Italy
    U.S. Subsidiaries: Business Men's Assurance Co. of America, Generali US Branch, Jones & Babson Inc., (In addition, Generali has U.S. investments in non-insurance businesses.)
    In 1938, the company was "Aryanized", and Generali became the main foreign insurer to operate in Nazi-occupied Europe. In fact, Generali assumed portfolios of several Czech carriers after the Munich agreement.
    After the war, Generali responded to claims from Holocaust victims by asserting that absence of records and nationalization of its assets by the Communists in Eastern Europe nullified its responsibilities for such claims.

  • Riunione Adriatica di Sicurta (now owned by Allianz AG) (Germany)
    Headquarters: Trieste, Italy
    U.S. Subsidiaries: Riunione is part of the Allianz group
    Adriatica asserts that all policy records from the era were destroyed near the end of the war.

  • Winterthur Group (now owned by AXA) (Switzerland)
    Headquarters: Winterthur, Switzerland
    U.S. Subsidiaries: Blue Ridge Insurance Company, General Casualty Company of Wisconsin, Regent Insurance Company, Republic Insurance Company, Southern Insurance Company, Unigard Indemnity Company, Vanguard Insurance Company, Winterthur Life Reinsurance Company, WINCORP Inc., Southern Fire & Casualty, WINCORP Inc.of California, Republic Vanguard Life Insurance Company, Chapparal Life Insurance Co., General Casualty of Illinois, General Financial Corp., Hoosier Insurance Co., Vanguard Underwriters, Compact Service Co., Allied Premium Finance, International Administrators, MassWest Financial Group, MassWest Insurance Co., Blue Ridge Indemnity Co., So. County Mutual Insurance Co., Republic Diversified Services, Insured Lloyds, Southern Insurance Co., Republic-Vanguard Insurance Co.
    There are assertions that Winterthur agents in Belgium sold special "two-payment" life policies to Jews. Many policyholders would have been sent to death camps before the second payment and the policies may have been voided. The company categorically denies this ever happened. The issue remains unresolved.
    The Simon Wiesenthal Center pressed Winterthur for examination of records and, subsequently, identified three policies paid out to the Nazis, one a 1924 policy estimated to be worth nearly 1,000,000 Swiss francs at current values.

  • Zurich Life (Zurich Financial Services) (Switzerland)
    Headquarters: Zurich, Switzerland
    U.S. Subsidiaries: American Guarantee & Liability Insurance Co., American Zurich Insurance Co., Assurance Company of America, City Insurance Company, Colonial American Casualty & Surety Company, Empire Fire & Marine Insurance Co., Federal Kemper Life Assurance Co., Fidelity & Deposit Company of Maryland, Fidelity Life Association, Home Insurance Company, Kemper Investors Life Insurance Co., Maryland Casualty Co., Northern Insurance Company of New York, Universal Underwriters Insurance Co., U.S. International Reinsurance Co., ZC Insurance Company, Zurich Insurance Company, Zurich Insurance Co. U.S. Branch, Zurich Life Insurance Company of America, Zurich Reinsurance Centre Inc.

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